Understanding how consumption of beef vs. plant-based burgers alters the lipemic response and intestine microbiota

In a latest research printed within the Meals Analysis Worldwide Journal, researchers reviewed the variations within the digestive course of between beef- (BB) and plant-based burgers (PB), from ingestion to excretion.

Examine: The digestive destiny of beef versus plant-based burgers from bolus to stool. Picture Credit score: gkrphoto/Shutterstock.com


Extremely-processed PB and conventional BB share comparable organoleptic traits, but a data hole exists in understanding how consumption of the completely different bodily buildings alters lipemic response and the intestine microbiome.

Comminuting muscle leads to the disruption of fibrillar muscle tissues, which ends up in the presence of partially intact meat fibers and their bundles being randomly distributed in comminuted-BB.

A excessive shear course of breaks down muscle cell membranes, which helps in salt infusion to extract myofibrillar proteins. This leads to the formation of a three-dimensional protein community upon cooking.

The attraction of plant-based meat analogs has elevated as a consequence of client considerations about greenhouse gasoline emissions, animal welfare, and the sources required for meals manufacturing. These analogs are available varied kinds, equivalent to patties, sausages, and nuggets have comparable sensory traits to meat.

Concerning the research

Within the current research, researchers analyzed the structural variations between BB and PB burgers all through digestion utilizing the TIM Gastrointestinal Mannequin.

BB and PB have been acquired for evaluation functions. The moisture, protein, lipid, and ash content material have been analyzed. The free fatty acid (FFA) composition of extracted crude oils was analyzed by changing triglycerides into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) via methoxylation.

The TIM-1 mannequin simulates digestion for BB and PB with the lipid fed-state protocol. The TIM-1 mannequin precisely replicates human small intestinal and gastric situations, with a robust correlation between in vitro and in vivo outcomes as a consequence of its exact pre-determined parameters.

TIM-1 experiments have been carried out to research the microstructure of digesta obtained at varied intervals throughout simulated digestion occurring within the gastric, ileal, and jejunal compartments. Nuclear magnetic resonance was used to quantify branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs).


The moisture, protein, fats, ash, and carbohydrate compensation varies remarkably between BB and PB burgers. BB accommodates larger quantities of protein and fat in comparison with PB. However, PB has larger carbohydrate ranges as a consequence of including potato starch, methylcellulose, and maltodextrin, that are needed for making a meat-like texture within the product.

The proximate evaluation revealed that the crude oil generated from Soxhlet extraction had each unsaturated and saturated FAs in BB, whereas PB primarily contained unsaturated FAs as a result of canola oil utilized in its formulation.

Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes contributed essentially the most considerable sequences. The Firmicutes proportion after stabilization is much like the preliminary fecal specimen’s microbial content material. After a seven-day therapy with PB or BB, there have been notable variations within the abundance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes within the ascending colon (AC) and transverse colon (TC).

Bacteroidetes have been larger after BB, whereas Firmicutes have been larger after PB consumption. This indicated a big variation in bacterial colonization, as famous by the upper Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio (F/B ratio) after PB consumption for seven days.

Research have reported a better F/B ratio in overweight individuals, however the Firmicutes proportions differed among the many fecal microbiome of wholesome topics. The connection between well being standing and the F/B ratio is changing into unclear as extra research are carried out. Weight problems could also be linked to varied fecal microbiota profiles.

The Simulated Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME) colon vessels have been discovered to be dominated by 25 bacterial genera and 17 bacterial households. The evaluation additionally revealed that 4 households and eight genera confirmed important variations in abundance between PB and BB remedies.

Particularly, 4 taxa have been discovered to be attribute of PB, whereas seven have been related to BB. Consuming PB led to a notable enhance within the prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridiaceae, and Planococcaceae sp. Lysinibacillus was discovered completely within the AC, whereas AC and mixed vessels additionally include different microorganisms.

The presence of protein within the intestine atmosphere might result in the expansion of proteolytic micro organism, equivalent to Clostridiaceae, regardless of the potential suppression attributable to carbohydrates. Citrobacter is extra considerable in PB at T7 within the AC and TC. This might pose a possible threat for gastrointestinal issues with long-term consumption of meat analogs.

On day seven of therapy, BB led to a exceptional enhance in butyrate, propionate, and acetate ranges, whereas PB elevated butyrate ranges and decreased propionate and acetate manufacturing. BB has a better complete SCFA focus than PB within the TC. BB displayed a better focus of butyrate than PB in direction of the therapy’s finish.

Throughout BB remedy within the AC, sure micro organism that produce SCFAs have been recognized. These embrace Megasphaera, which produces butyrate, and Alistipes, Blautia, and Bacteroides, which produce acetate and propionate. These micro organism can work collectively via metabolic cross-feeding to enhance microbial productiveness and stability.


The research findings confirmed that plant- and animal-based meats have completely different digestive fates from ingestion to excretion. After consuming BB and PB, there have been a number of variations in intestine microbial inhabitants and metabolites.

This means that the dietary content material and nutrient effectivity have an effect on substrate utilization and bacterial proliferation, which ends up in modifications in metabolite manufacturing.

Researchers consider that meat substitutes want to duplicate the sensory traits of actual meat, and future developments ought to deal with creating buildings much like entire meals. 

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